Big Goals for Small Islands: Hawaiian Legislation Promotes Renewable Energy in Transportation

by Siena Hacker

For such a small chain of islands, the state of Hawaii has the biggest renewable energy target in the United States. Hawaii introduced legislation that would fine utilities that are not completely powered by renewable energy by 2045. Now, as reported in a January 2017 New York Times piece by the Associated Press, the state is going a step farther by introducing legislation promoting a complete reliance on renewables for the transportation sector. [] With Hawaiians already owning an estimated one million cars – not to mention all of the cars for sale in dealerships – it would be imprudent for the state to mandate a shift to renewable fuels for the transportation sector. Hawaii is instead attempting to encourage the transition by increasing the number of required charging stations. The reasoning holds that as electric cars become cheaper and the infrastructure supporting them increases, investing in an electric car will become the practical choice. Continue reading

Cost-Effectiveness of Southern California Public Transportation Projects

by Dan McCabe

California recently established a carbon cap-and-trade program in the interest of improving air quality and fighting global climate change. The tax revenues generated from this program are used to fund projects that help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but policymakers face the challenge of deciding which projects are best suited for this funding. To inform this decision-making process, Matute and Chester (2015) compared the effectiveness of different current and future public transportation projects to determine which is the most cost-effective, in terms of public dollars spent per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent released. The study compared four projects from Los Angeles County: the Orange Bus Rapid Transport (Orange BRT) line in the San Fernando Valley, the Gold Light Rail Transport (Gold LRT) line that runs from Los Angeles to Pasadena, a bicycle and pedestrian pathway along the Orange BRT line, and the California High Speed Rail (CAHSR) project, a plan being developed to expand high-speed rail throughout the state. All four projects were found to have negative costs per ton of carbon dioxide reduced, indicating that they actually save the public money over time. For a 100-year period, the bicycle pathway was found to be most cost-effective, followed by the Gold LRT, Orange BRT, and CAHSR. Continue reading

How to Reduce California’s Greenhouse Gases by 80%

by Emil Morhardt

According to the latest runs of a complex computer energy model (CA-TIMES) coming out of the University of California at Davis (Yang et al. 2015), the energy scene across California may be quite different by 2050. The model is not designed to predict what will happen, but instead to examine the economic and policy implications of just about every possible major perturbation of energy generation and use in the state to get us to the current policy goal of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels. What results is a series of least-cost scenarios to get to various policy-driven energy endpoints. The bottom line is that greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced enough to meet the 80% goal at low to moderate costs, but not without major investments in wind and solar power generation, production of synthetic fuels directly from biomass using the Fischer–Tropsch synfuel pyrolysis process (more about that in upcoming posts), and hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure to power fuel cells. Continue reading