Cost-Effectiveness of Southern California Public Transportation Projects

by Dan McCabe

California recently established a carbon cap-and-trade program in the interest of improving air quality and fighting global climate change. The tax revenues generated from this program are used to fund projects that help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but policymakers face the challenge of deciding which projects are best suited for this funding. To inform this decision-making process, Matute and Chester (2015) compared the effectiveness of different current and future public transportation projects to determine which is the most cost-effective, in terms of public dollars spent per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent released. The study compared four projects from Los Angeles County: the Orange Bus Rapid Transport (Orange BRT) line in the San Fernando Valley, the Gold Light Rail Transport (Gold LRT) line that runs from Los Angeles to Pasadena, a bicycle and pedestrian pathway along the Orange BRT line, and the California High Speed Rail (CAHSR) project, a plan being developed to expand high-speed rail throughout the state. All four projects were found to have negative costs per ton of carbon dioxide reduced, indicating that they actually save the public money over time. For a 100-year period, the bicycle pathway was found to be most cost-effective, followed by the Gold LRT, Orange BRT, and CAHSR. Continue reading

Life Cycle Inventory of Electricity Cogeneration from Bagasse in the South African Sugar Industry

by Monkgogi Bonolo Otohogile

South Africa’s sugar industry is worth over $1.11 billion and South Africa is consistently ranked as one of the top 15 sugar producing countries in the world. The sugar manufacturing process also produces thousands of tonnes of a biomass called bagasse that is being underutilized. Mashoko et al. (2013) investigated the potential for the cogeneration of steam and electricity using bagasse in South Africa’s sugar industry. The authors’ developed life cycle inventories for bagasse electricity production, which they used to evaluate the environmental impacts of cogeneration. Using data supplied by various affiliated organizations and studies, Mashoko and colleagues determined the greenhouse gases, energy ratio, non-renewable energy input, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide of a functional unit of 1 GWh of bagasse-derived electricity produced in the South African sugar industry and compared it to coal-derived electricity and bagasse-derived electricity in Mauritius. The authors found that bagasse-derived electricity performed better than coal-derived electricity in every category outlined above. Mashoko et al. argued that by increasing their boiler pressure, the sugar industry could produce cleaner electricity during the sugar life cycle by following in the footsteps of Mauritius. Bagasse-derived electricity could mitigate South Africa’s massive carbon dioxide emissions while also making the sugar industry self-sufficient and contributing to the grid. Continue reading