Electricity End-Use Efficiency in Ghana

by Monkgogi Bonolo Otlhogile

In the last three decades, electricity generation in Ghana has more than tripled but the demand continues to outpace the supply. Electricity efficiency is known to reduce the strain on electricity generation as it prevents wastage, reduces the electricity demand per capita, and ultimately results in a more stable and consistent electricity supply. Since 2000, the Ghanaian government has been working on consumer or end-use electricity efficiency through the use of new or improved legislation, the creation of new energy efficiency institutions, and the dissemination of adequate technology for both residential and industrial purposes. Dramani and Tewari (2013) presented a theory of electricity end-use, discussed the types of end-use technologies, and showcased factors that prevent the maximization of these technologies in Ghana. The authors discuss the effectiveness of the policies that the Ghanaian government, alongside nongovernmental organizations and international researchers, implemented to promote the dissemination and use of end-use technologies. They also discuss how the reorganization of energy efficiency organizations has transformed the electricity markets. Dramani and Tewari argue that the technologies and policies the Ghanaian government has been working on are to be applauded but concede that there are market failures that are preventing appropriate adoption by end-users. They argue that the holistic use of institutions will aid in facilitating end-use electricity efficiency in Ghana by addressing current market failures. Continue reading

Energy Efficiency in Ghana

by Monkgogi Bonolo Otlhogile

Ghana has a middle-income economy with a projected GDP per capita of $3,718.40 (World Development Indicators, 2014). Policy makers in Ghana refer to it as a ‘maturing economy’ and have argued for Ghana to continue its investment in services, an efficient energy system, and mass media and telecommunications (African Development Bank). Unlike many African countries, Ghana does not rely on fossil fuels for its energy uses but instead depends on hydropower for 97% of its energy needs (World Bank Indicators, 2014). However, in 2007, Ghana discovered large reserves of natural gas and oil and there has been fear that coupled with recent hydrological shocks, which caused intermittent energy supply, Ghana will turn to its fossil fuels to be the solution to its energy problems. Continue reading