Prospective Combined Solar—Wind Energy

Renewable energy sources are certainly big considerations for our generation, but their economic feasibility remains in question, even the most well studied—wind and solar energy. Wind and solar energy are two big renewable energy options. Wind energy is currently much less expensive at 7.5681 c€/kWh than photovoltaics at 43.1486 c€/kWh.  Dufo-Lopez et al. (2009) examine the feasibility of a combined solar-wind energy production system in Spain in three different forms.  Type A in which all energy is sold to the grid; Type B in which some energy is sold to the grid and some is used to produce hydrogen which is also sold; 3rd Type C in which some energy is sold to the grid, some used to produce hydrogen later used in a fuel cell and the electrical energy thus generated is sold.  It was found that the intermittent production of hydrogen was only economical in areas with a high wind speed and if the selling price was at least 10 c€/kWh, much higher than currently allowed under Spanish law.— Teija Mortvedt 
Dufo-Lopez, R., Bernal-Agustin, J.L., Mendoza, F., 2009, Design and Economical Analysis of Hybrid PV-wind Systems Connected to the Grid for the Intermittent Production of Hydrogen, Energy Police 37, 3082–2095.  

   Wind energy would be much less expensive to produce in Spain because of equipment costs, but wind speeds can vary greatly within much of the land that has been determined to have a high enough wind speed is already occupied by wind installations.

Conversely photovoltaics can be installed almost anywhere because solar irradiation does not vary much within a geographical area considered. Economically it makes sense to combine the two technologies because wind power will help bring down costs and solar energy will make for a larger area of production.
The three types of hybrid PV-wind systems considered vary the degree to which hydrogen is used.  In type B and C systems hydrogen will be generated when the excess energy generated from the electrical systems exceeds the evacuation capacity of the electrical grid. Models B and C are a viable option only if wind speed is high enough, and therefore  geographically limited. this can only be implemented in certain areas of Spain. Other wish PV only systems are the best option for places with sub par wind levels.

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